kofcmuseum civil 4274 webOne of the displays at the exhibit “Answering the Call: Service & Charity in the Civil War” at the Knights of Columbus Museum in New Haven is a reproduction of a tent chapel that shows how chaplains ministered to soldiers and how Mass was celebrated on the battlefield despite hardships. (Photo by Mary Chalupsky)

NEW HAVEN – History buffs likely won’t want to miss a new exhibit at the Knights of Columbus Museum, “Answering the Call: Service & Charity in the Civil War,” which focuses on religious ministry and medical care provided to Civil War soldiers.

Honduras 2 2015 178 webVillagers gather for the opening of Clinica la Amistad (Friendship Clinic) in Monte de los Olivos, in the city of El Progreso, Honduras, Feb. 3.

WETHERSFIELD – The Feb. 3 opening of a health clinic in Honduras by three Connecticut women was the result of three revelations the women experienced.

20150305cnsbr8397 pope webPope Francis greets elderly woman as he arrives for weekly audience in 2014 in St. Peter's Square at Vatican. (CNS photo/Tony Gentile, Reuters)

VATICAN CITY (CNS) – The most serious ailment the aged face and the greatest injustice they suffer is abandonment, Pope Francis said.

knights columbus logo webNEW HAVEN – To aid war-torn Ukraine in the aftermath of an undeclared war waged by Russia, the Knights of Columbus has donated $400,000 for humanitarian relief programs sponsored by the Catholic Church in Ukraine.

bro bob head webBrother Bob Moriarty

BLOOMFIELD – In this Year of Consecrated Life, many people are asking, “What, exactly, do individuals do who are in religious communities? How do they live their lives on a daily basis?’

For cloistered religious, like the Bene

20150218cm01806 webPope Francis gives ashes during Ash Wednesday Mass at the Basilica of Santa Sabina in Rome Feb. 18. (CNS photo/Paul Haring)

ROME (CNS) -- Lent is a journey of purification and penance, a movement that should bring one tearfully back to the loving arms of the merciful Father, Pope Francis said at an Ash Wednesday Mass that began with a procession on Rome's Aventine Hill.

st joes medal 8572 webGerard Staves of St. Mary Parish in Windsor Locks takes a moment with Paula Taylor of St. Robert Bellarmine Parish in Windsor Locks. (Photo by Karen O. Bray)

HARTFORD – Archbishop Leonard P. Blair presided over a joyful ceremony on March 22, celebrating the blessing and conferral of this year’s St. Joseph Medals of Appreciation to 206 parishioners from across the Archdiocese of Hartford.

PAS hearing 8363 webHundreds of people fill a room at the Legislative Office Building in Hartford on March 18 as a hearing before the legislature’s judiciary committee offered people the opportunity to present their views on House Bill 7015, An Act Concerning Aid in Dying for Terminally Ill Patients. (Photo by Karen O. Bray)

HARTFORD – The cold March wind on March 18 did not deter more than 200 people from testifying at the third Connecticut public hearing in as many years on the attempt to legalize physician-assisted suicide in the state of Connecticut.

20150213cnsto0043 web This architectural rendering shows how the Museum of the Bible planned for Washington will look. (CNS photo/courtesy Smith Group JJR)

WASHINGTON (CNS) -- On a gray and overcast morning in Washington, just a short walk from Capitol Hill, construction work began on a museum intended to promote engagement, education and discussion of the Bible.

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MsgrLiptak_TNThe Church in the United States has begun to use the newly translated English Missal (or, technically speaking, the new English Sacramentary, which together with the standard Lectionary, completes the unit known as the Roman Missal). Although inaugurated in America on the First Sunday of Advent, it has been in use for several weeks in at least three other English-speaking nations. By and large, the new translation has been generally well-received. In many respects, it seems, the 2011 version clearly represents an improvement over the 1973 text insofar as liturgical English is concerned.

An obvious example occurs in the translation of the "words of the Lord" (verba Domini), which constitute the essential formula for the twofold consecration of bread and wine. I refer, of course, to the modification, in the new translation, of the phrase "for all" with the more accurate phrase, "for many." "It [the Precious Blood] will be shed for you and for all so that sins may be forgiven," has been newly rendered as "the blood of the new and eternal covenant which will be poured out for you and for many."

No one, I think, has explained this modification better or more concisely than Pope Benedict XVI in his best-selling Jesus of Nazareth, Volume II (San Francisco: Ignatius, 2011. See pp. 131 sqq.). Pope Benedict, a world-class theologian in his own right, observes that the formula which Jesus articulated over the Chalice reflects three interwoven Old Testament passages; Exodus 24:8; Jeremiah 31:31 and Isaiah 53:12. The citation from Isaiah foretells a Suffering Servant (Ebed Yahweh, in Hebrew transliteration), who will effect mankind’s salvation while bearing the sins of many.

Now, in New Testament times, the "many" of Isaiah 53 clearly indicates a totality, but – in Pope Benedict’s words – this concept of "totality" cannot be equated with "all." More precisely, Pope Benedict notes, the "many" in Isaiah’s crucial passage spoken by Jesus at the Last Supper means the "totality" of Israel. Moreover, "it was only when the Gospel was brought to the Gentiles that the universal horizon of Jesus’ death and atonement came to the fore, embracing Jews and Gentiles equally." (p. 135)

Of course, there is also a translation problem in this context. Recall that both English versions of the Latin Mass (1973 and 2011) reflect the ancient Roman Rite Latin Mass. But even the Latin itself doesn’t warrant rendering the phrase pro multis ("for the many," or "for many") as "for all." Technically, therefore, the 1973 translation is not quite precise – to say the least. Besides, an ancient, perennial rule about liturgical translations is that they should be faithful, insofar as possible, to the original.

Which prompts another issue: simply speaking, the Roman Mass was not initially celebrated in Latin but in Greek. Greek, the language of the New Testament, was the lingua franca of the Roman world at least from the fourth century B.C., when the Greek emperor, Alexander the Great, conquered everything in sight. Furthermore, Greek was a highly sophisticated tongue, required for social advancement at the time. Latin didn’t begin to acquire respect until Cicero and Vergil made it artful. All this is important because liturgical translators must keep in mind the Grecian origins of the Roman Mass – as well as the Hebrew and Aramaic (which Jesus must have used for everyday discourse).

A bedrock tenet of Catholic doctrine is the universality of salvation; Christ our Lord came to save all persons in principle. This is a Biblical datum; see 1 Timothy, 1:15. However, even God can’t save one who absolutely refuses to be saved, one who totally rejects the grace of conversion, in other words. Thus, while St. Paul reveals that everyone is predestined to glory – read Ephesians and Romans, especially – God awaits each person’s assent given in freedom, with which he never tampers, much less interferes.

Msgr. David Q. Liptak is Executive Editor of The Catholic Transcript and censor librorum for the Archdiocese of Hartford.

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