The search for a leading role among world leaders and the unprecedented nature of some agreements marked a promising start to the intergovernmental talks in Glasgow, England, in the first week of COP-26. However, there is tension between the United States and China, two of the world’s major emitters of greenhouse gases, which could prevent future outcomes: the UN. The effect of the climate summit and one of its key points. Regulation of the carbon credit market.
At the same time, Brazil’s alignment with the United States and the European Union (not surprisingly maintaining the same militant posture adopted by Jair Bolsanaro since the beginning of the gesture) helped to soften the country’s image.
The definitive results of the negotiations are, in fact, beginning to appear in the second week. That is, from promise to disappointment, the distance may be short. However, so far some results are significant. The International Covenant on Methane, with the commitment of 90 countries to reduce emissions (including Brazil), the commitment of 46 countries to drop coal and the promise of 100 governments to end deforestation (and Brazil among them at one time) are some of the key points.
Apart from these, other important announcements took place: $ 130 trillion in private equity fund pledged to switch to zero carbon and the first negotiations to make possible the $ 1 billion annual fund for the development of rich, nation-based countries. $ 1.7 billion pledge in climate fund for indigenous people.
The methane deal began to cause open controversy between the United States and China. Announced on Tuesday, the United States has led more than 100 countries to sign a pledge to reduce methane emissions by 30% from last year’s by 2030. China, Russia and India dropped out of the list.
Although it disappears faster than carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, methane is 80 times more capable of warming. Therefore, reducing the release of this pollution is considered as a strategy to accelerate the fight against climate change.
If the world had expected Donald Trump’s departure from that position to ease relations with China, on a concrete plane, things would not have been so easy. “What has changed with Joe Biden is that the possibilities of reaching an agreement are possible, but they both have conflicting relationships and a history of resolving internal issues such as over-reliance on coal,” says the professor. Department of International Relations at UERJ, Maurcio Santoro.
Here, not only is there a conflicting relationship between the two largest CO2 emitters on the planet, but there is their enormous dependence on the polluting energy matrix. “It is possible to reach a consensus, but it is not easy, especially because of the economic problems brought about by the epidemic,” he says.
The pledge of 100 governments to end deforestation by 2030 was the first step in Glasgow, in which US President Trump led the negotiations on the role abandoned during his tenure. The group of countries collects 85% of the world’s forests and invests $ 19 billion in public and private funds. “Our forests are nature’s way of capturing carbon, taking carbon dioxide (CO2) out of the atmosphere,” Biden said when launching the initiative.
The new era
Alok Sharma, chairman of COP-26, which announced that 46 countries would abandon the use of coal, said, “The time has come for us to put coal back in the history books.”
The United States and China have not joined the agreement, but have pledged to no longer fund coal-based projects in other countries. “Commitment is still very low in the eyes of the major coal users,” says Myara Foley, project director of the CIP platform, an environmental thinker based in Glasgow.
According to her, in general, despite the positive announcements, the promises made by countries still fall short of expectations. This can be seen in the negotiations for the credibility of the US $ 1 billion annual fund to combat climate change in developing countries.
Although developed countries have expressed an interest in negotiating and raising the amount to be transferred to this fund, in the first negotiations, the amount has not been reached. In return, the most vulnerable countries have asked for a guarantee of at least $ 5 billion over the next five years.
Information from the newspaper
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