Ambiguous, lacking in detail and not enough for activists, a proposed agreement was presented for climate talks on Wednesday morning in Glasgow, ushering in the final phase of negotiations at COP26, the 26th United Nations conference on climate change. The seven-page document proposes that countries make new environmental commitments in 2022, in recognition that what exists today is not enough to avert a climate crisis.
But the document was the target of severe criticism for not having specific targets, for not setting, for example, a global warming of 1.5 degrees Celsius as a goal. For entities such as Greenpeace and others, the text is vague and does not establish new volumes of aid to developing countries and only asks governments to reassess carbon dioxide reduction targets in 2022.
The negotiation process should end on Friday, and environmentalists are already denouncing the weakness of the new text. Some positive points point to new dates for countries to introduce new targets. But there is still uncertainty about cutting emissions and financing to prevent global warming.
On the other hand, the Brazilian government appreciates that this is progress, but will push for a text that binds rich countries with regard to financing emerging countries.
However, the draft agreement notes that governments have “decided to continue efforts” to limit temperature rise to 1.5°C, the limit set in the Paris Agreement in 2015.
The text further calls on “parties to reconsider the 2030 goals and enhance them in their Nationally Determined Contributions, as needed to align with the temperature target of the Paris Agreement by the end of 2022.”
The text highlights how emissions are at risk of increasing, in 2030, to 13.7% above 2010 levels. However, the target was a 45% cut to reach the 1.5°C target.
To overcome this problem, the agreement proposes holding an annual ministerial meeting starting in 2022.
In one of Brazil’s central points – the issue of external financing – the text remains ambiguous about the obligations of rich countries.
The text also calls on advanced economies to “at least double their collective provision of climate finance for adaptation.”
The chapter does not commit rich countries to any new financing after 2025. The text leaves only room for discussion.
The Brazilian government has proposed the creation of a commission to assess the amount of resources that should be transferred, in excess of US$100 billion. But the project has been criticized by rich countries that do not want to give up deciding how much resources to allocate to emerging countries.
However, there is an indication of the need to “exceed $100 billion”. In the corridors, one of the proposals circulated referred to a $500 billion five-year package, which did not satisfy emerging nations.
However, one of the major advances is the reference to the eradication of coal. The document urges countries to “accelerate the phase-out of coal and support fuel fossils”.
In addition, countries are urged to reduce greenhouse gases such as methane and reform forests.
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