However, The cost of oil is now a global concern, even for the countries that produce it, because there are different types of oil. Brazil, for example, needs to look abroad for oil that is not produced here.
Brazil produces 3 million barrels of oil per day and consumes 2.5 million barrels. However, it imports 300,000 barrels per day.
if We produce more than we spend, so why not rely on ourselves?
The interpretation of this calculation does not come only from calculators. It also comes from labs. Is that There are different types of oil. Some are heavier and more viscous. Others are called lightweight, which is ideal for making some fuels..
it’s a Essential when converting crude oil into gasoline, diesel, aviation kerosene and all by-products that leave the refinery.
Almost all of the country’s refineries were built until the 1970s. At that time, Brazil was importing light oil from the Middle East.. So machines were selected for this raw material.
In 1979, we found large reserves in the Campos Basin, on the coast of Rio de Janeiro; And in the 1980s, we adapted refineries to process the heavy oil we get from there.
In the first decade of the twenty-first century, we had to make new adjustments. This time for Pre-salt oil. It is lighter than Campos, but heavier than Middle East.For example.
“The Petrobras He has already made the necessary investments. If we look at how much we use Brazilian oil today, we have a very high rate. Today, 92% of all that is refined is Brazilian oil. In 2000, we only used 75%, that is: 25% of refined oil was importedRodrigo Liao, a researcher at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and the Institute for Strategic Studies in Oil, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ENIP) says.
Today, 75% of the refined oil in Brazil comes from the pre-salt layer, 17% comes from the heavier Campos Basin, and we still need to import 8% of the light oil to get the perfect blend for refining, both technically from a point of view. Economic.
“The analysis is even done by artificial intelligence. There are thousands of variables that go in there, which also varies according to the pricing of these by-products in the international market. There are times when gasoline is more valuable, and there are times when it is less valuable, so what goes into when planning a refinery load, take all of these variables into account so you can improve the outcome of that refinery In terms of profitability and service to the market, explains Eberaldo Almeida, President of the Brazilian Institute of Oil and Gas (IBP).
but anyway, All the production that our refineries are able to produce is not enough to supply the local market. Therefore, we continue to import fuels and sell surplus crude oil that we cannot refine.
Last year, we exported 1.2 million barrels per day, making us the largest exporter of oil in Latin America. Why do we rely on refining? Why does Brazil import 30% of the derivatives it consumes? It was just that there was a lack of investment in the refinery. Petrobras, in recent years, has invested very little in refining, because it preferred to invest in oil exploration and production, which gives the company a higher rate of return,” says Adriano Perez, director of the Brazilian Center for Infrastructure.
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